What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a brain disorder that can affect children and adults at any age. It causes a variety of symptoms that can interfere with a person’s everyday life.
It can affect a child’s ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. It can also affect a child’s social relationships and school work.
Signs and Symptoms of ADHD
ADHD is a mental health condition that can affect your ability to pay attention, focus and be patient. It can also impact your ability to interact with other people and manage your emotions.
Children with adhd have a hard time paying attention to what they are doing or talking about, and can easily become distracted by things that are outside of their normal focus. For example, they might be unable to focus on a task at school when their friends are playing games.
If you see these signs and symptoms in someone you know, it’s important to seek a diagnosis. They may need help finding ways to improve their attention and learn strategies for managing distractions and feelings.
It’s also important to keep in mind that many people with adhd also have other psychiatric disorders. This includes mood disorders like depression, bipolar disorder or anxiety, as well as personality disorders and other conditions that can lead to substance use or impulsive actions.
ADHD can present differently in boys and girls. This happens because boys tend to have more obvious symptoms of ADHD, while girls often show less socially disruptive symptoms.
Types of ADHD
There are several types of ADHD, each with its own symptoms and treatment options. While a common misconception is that all people with ADHD have the same type, it’s actually not true.
In addition to hyperactivity, there are two other types of ADHD – inattentive and combined-type. A person who has the inattentive type typically shows signs of being easily distracted and finding it difficult to focus.
For example, they may have trouble completing classwork or finishing art projects on time, as well as having trouble remembering important dates. They’re also likely to misplace their glasses or keys more often than most people.
Adults with this type are also more likely to jump in and out of conversations, interrupt others and blurt out answers. This behavior can be difficult to control and can interfere with their lives.
The inattentive type of ADHD is the most common. It’s usually spotted in children and young adults.
When it comes to diagnosis, it’s a complicated process that requires a doctor or other health professional to gather information about a child’s behavior and then perform a series of tests. Symptoms can change over time, so doctors need to evaluate a child again as they get older.
Causes of ADHD
There is no clear cause of ADHD, but scientists think it may be related to genetics and environmental factors. Certain chemicals in the environment, like lead, and prenatal substance exposure (smoking during pregnancy) have been linked to ADHD.
Children with ADHD tend to have different patterns of behavior than other children their age. They also have a difficult time adjusting to changes in their surroundings and routines.
They are easily distracted, often impulsive and hyperactive. They have a hard time following through on requests and completing tasks.
Symptoms usually begin during childhood but can continue into adulthood. Medications can help control symptoms, but it takes time to find the right combination for your needs.
Doctors usually start with a low dose of a stimulant medicine to see how you respond to it. They then watch for side effects and make adjustments based on your progress.
Many people need to try several medications before they get the best results. Your doctor will want to see you for weeks or months to find the best dose and medicine for your needs.
Treatment for ADHD can be a combination of medication and behavioral therapy, but it is important to follow the plan carefully. There are many resources available for families and individuals with ADHD.
How is ADHD Diagnosed?
If you think your child has ADHD, talk to a doctor or a pediatrician. These specialists can assess a child’s symptoms and refer them to a psychologist or psychiatrist if needed.
The doctor will need to collect a variety of information from the patient, their parents or caregivers and the child’s teachers. They’ll use checklists and rating scales to determine if the child has ADHD.
Your doctor may also order a physical exam to check for other health issues that could be causing the symptoms of ADHD. The doctor will look for signs of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders that might be causing the ADHD-related behavior.
For a diagnosis of ADHD, there must be symptoms that have been noticeable for at least six months in more than two settings — for example, at home and in school. In addition, the symptoms must not be better explained by another disorder such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or a personality disorder.
Inattentive type: a child with ADHD has difficulty paying attention and finishing tasks, especially when they have to focus on learning. These symptoms often interfere with their education and social life. They often become easily distracted and forget things they’re supposed to do, such as homework or cell phone calls.
Treatsments for ADHD
Treatment for ADHD often includes a combination of medication, therapy, behavior changes and skills training. This is called multimodal treatment, and the best results happen when doctors, teachers, parents and therapists work together.
Stimulants are the most common type of medicine for treating ADHD. These medicines boost the amount of two brain chemicals, dopamine and norepinephrine, that help control attention and impulses. They come in short-acting and long-acting formulas, depending on the doctor’s recommendations.
Methylphenidate (brand names include Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana and Focalin) is usually prescribed to adults, teenagers and children over 5 with ADHD. This medicine is available as a short-acting tablet or a patch that you wear on your hip.
Other options for treatment of ADHD include non-stimulant medicines that target the brain’s dopamine and norepinephrine systems to improve attention and focus. They also have fewer side effects than stimulants, but they may take weeks to start working.
Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that can be used as a first-line medicine in children and adults with ADHD. This drug also has fewer side effects than other medications, but it can cause more serious problems like suicidal thoughts or liver damage.
Your doctor will work with you to find the right dose of your medicine and how much you need to take each day. The dose will be adjusted as you get better and if any side effects occur. It may take several months to find the right combination of medication and dosage.
ADHD in Adults
Adults with ADHD have many of the same symptoms as children, including problems paying attention, making careless mistakes and having trouble staying focused on tasks or activities. They may also have trouble staying organized and managing their time.
In addition, they may find it hard to maintain relationships or keep track of finances. They might also have a difficult time controlling their emotions.
Often, adults with ADHD seek help to learn more about their disorder and develop strategies to control their symptoms. This might include cognitive behavioral therapy or coaching.
The goal of psychotherapy is to help an individual recognize their thoughts and behaviors that trigger impulsive, risky or depressive behaviors and change them. The approach can also help the person learn how to cope with stress and manage depression or anxiety.
People with ADHD can benefit from behavioral therapy, which teaches them how to better control their impulses and improve their organizational skills. They can also seek counseling from a mental health professional, such as a psychologist, psychiatrist or clinical social worker.
People with ADHD also can get support from their friends or family members. They might join support groups, where they can find information about ADHD and connect with others who share the same challenges.
There are several medications available to help treat ADHD. Some work faster than others, and they may be accompanied by behavioral therapy.
Stimulants, the most common type of medicine for ADHD, boost levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters that play important roles in attention and thinking. They’re safe when prescribed and monitored under medical supervision, but they can have side effects when used in large doses or when they are taken with other medicines.
They can also make depression and other mental health issues worse. Your doctor will need to discuss this with you and find a medication that is safe for you.
These drugs are also often accompanied by other types of treatment, including behavioral therapy, education, and skills training. However, these treatments won’t cure ADHD and can’t address all the symptoms.
If you or your child is diagnosed with ADHD, a GP or specialist can recommend the best combination of treatments for your individual situation. Your treatment may include stimulants, nonstimulants, and antidepressants.
Stimulant medications can be effective in 70% to 90% of patients with ADHD. These medications can help improve concentration, decrease hyperactivity and reduce impulsivity. They are usually given in small doses to start with, then gradually increased over time. They need to be taken regularly to be effective.
Direção: Andres Gonzalez
Direção Fotográfica: Andres Gonzalez
Edição e finalização: OBMOP
Produção musical: GuiGui
Letra: MH, Tulio Sev, JhonB, OBMOP, GuiGui
Tulio Sev: @tulio_sev
JhonB – @joaombretas
GuiGui – @guiguiovrec